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Current Issue of Nature


Volume 565 Issue 7738, 10 January 2019

Volume 565 Issue 7738, 10 January 2019

Evolution of a black hole

The cover image shows an artist’s impression of a black hole that has started to accrete material from a nearby star. The properties of accretion flow for a stellar-mass black hole can change on a timescale of days to months. When the black hole ‘turns on’ after accreting material it has a hard (high-energy) X-ray spectrum that is produced by the hot corona (shown in blue) above its accretion disk (yellow). It then changes to a soft (lower-energy) spectrum that is dominated by emissions from the accretion disk. But whether it is a change in disk’s radius or a reduction in the corona that drives this transition has been an open question. In this week’s issue, Erin Kara and her colleagues provide results that may help to settle the debate. The researchers studied a newly identified black hole transient and followed its evolution using instruments on the International Space Station. They found over the course of the hole’s evolution from hard to soft emissions, the corona contracts but the inner edge of the accretion disk stays in the same place.

Cover image: Aurore Simonnet

This Week

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    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    A technique called reverberation mapping has previously been used to probe the structure of matter around supermassive black holes. Observations suggest that this technique can also be applied to much smaller black holes.

    • Daryl Haggard
  • News & Views |

    A computational strategy has delivered a redesigned, more stable version of a cytokine protein that mimics the natural protein’s interactions with receptors, opening the way for designer cytokine-based therapeutics.

    • E. Yvonne Jones
  • News & Views |

    Scenarios have been discovered in which it is impossible to prove whether or not a machine-learning algorithm could solve a particular problem. This finding might have implications for both established and future learning algorithms.

    • Lev Reyzin
  • News & Views |

    Some fat cells convert energy into heat, so targeting them to induce weight loss is appealing. The discovery that a subset of the cells burns glucose, rather than both glucose and lipids, could improve our ability to do just that.

    • Wenfei Sun
    •  & Christian Wolfrum
  • News & Views |

    A technically challenging analysis has revealed the physical properties of a mineral at pressures and temperatures as high as those in Earth’s mantle. The findings have implications for our understanding of Earth’s deep interior.

    • Johannes Buchen
  • News & Views |

    How Nature reported psychometric testing in 1919, and its own hundredth anniversary in 1969.

  • News & Views |

    Clinical trials reveal that personalized vaccines can boost immune-cell responses to brain tumours that don’t usually respond to immunotherapy. The findings also point to how to improve such treatments.

    • Neeha Zaidi
    •  & Elizabeth M. Jaffee
  • Articles

  • Article |

    The mouse develops a developmentally and functionally distinct, non-canonical beige fat cell type as an adaptation to cold ambient temperature.

    • Yong Chen
    • , Kenji Ikeda
    • , Takeshi Yoneshiro
    • , Annarita Scaramozza
    • , Kazuki Tajima
    • , Qiang Wang
    • , Kyeongkyu Kim
    • , Kosaku Shinoda
    • , Carlos Henrique Sponton
    • , Zachary Brown
    • , Andrew Brack
    •  & Shingo Kajimura
  • Article |

    A hyper-stable de novo protein mimic of interleukin-2 computationally designed to not interact with a regulatory T-cell specific receptor subunit has improved therapeutic activity in mouse models of melanoma and colon cancer.

    • Daniel-Adriano Silva
    • , Shawn Yu
    • , Umut Y. Ulge
    • , Jamie B. Spangler
    • , Kevin M. Jude
    • , Carlos Labão-Almeida
    • , Lestat R. Ali
    • , Alfredo Quijano-Rubio
    • , Mikel Ruterbusch
    • , Isabel Leung
    • , Tamara Biary
    • , Stephanie J. Crowley
    • , Enrique Marcos
    • , Carl D. Walkey
    • , Brian D. Weitzner
    • , Fátima Pardo-Avila
    • , Javier Castellanos
    • , Lauren Carter
    • , Lance Stewart
    • , Stanley R. Riddell
    • , Marion Pepper
    • , Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes
    • , Michael Dougan
    • , K. Christopher Garcia
    •  & David Baker
  • Article |

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of human γ-secretase in complex with its substrate Notch reveals pronounced structural rearrangements compared to the apo enzyme, including formation of a β-sheet involving residues from both enzyme and substrate.

    • Guanghui Yang
    • , Rui Zhou
    • , Qiang Zhou
    • , Xuefei Guo
    • , Chuangye Yan
    • , Meng Ke
    • , Jianlin Lei
    •  & Yigong Shi
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    X-ray observations of the evolution of a black-hole transient suggest a shrinkage of its corona, rather than a change in the inner edge of the accretion disk.

    • E. Kara
    • , J. F. Steiner
    • , A. C. Fabian
    • , E. M. Cackett
    • , P. Uttley
    • , R. A. Remillard
    • , K. C. Gendreau
    • , Z. Arzoumanian
    • , D. Altamirano
    • , S. Eikenberry
    • , T. Enoto
    • , J. Homan
    • , J. Neilsen
    •  & A. L. Stevens
  • Letter |

    Photometry and parallax data from the Gaia satellite provide direct observational evidence of a theoretically predicted pile-up in the cooling sequence of white dwarfs, which is associated with core crystallization.

    • Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay
    • , Gilles Fontaine
    • , Nicola Pietro Gentile Fusillo
    • , Bart H. Dunlap
    • , Boris T. Gänsicke
    • , Mark A. Hollands
    • , J. J. Hermes
    • , Thomas R. Marsh
    • , Elena Cukanovaite
    •  & Tim Cunningham
  • Letter |

    Observations at millimetre wavelengths reveal a young protostar surrounded by a disk with two differently tilted regions.

    • Nami Sakai
    • , Tomoyuki Hanawa
    • , Yichen Zhang
    • , Aya E. Higuchi
    • , Satoshi Ohashi
    • , Yoko Oya
    •  & Satoshi Yamamoto
  • Letter |

    Femtosecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction reveals that in the ultrafast demagnitization of ferromagnetic iron, about 80% of the angular momentum lost from the spins is transferred to the lattice on a sub-picosecond timescale.

    • C. Dornes
    • , Y. Acremann
    • , M. Savoini
    • , M. Kubli
    • , M. J. Neugebauer
    • , E. Abreu
    • , L. Huber
    • , G. Lantz
    • , C. A. F. Vaz
    • , H. Lemke
    • , E. M. Bothschafter
    • , M. Porer
    • , V. Esposito
    • , L. Rettig
    • , M. Buzzi
    • , A. Alberca
    • , Y. W. Windsor
    • , P. Beaud
    • , U. Staub
    • , Diling Zhu
    • , Sanghoon Song
    • , J. M. Glownia
    •  & S. L. Johnson
  • Letter |

    A new metal–organic framework has several conformational degrees of freedom that can be modified by the external chemical environment to change the structure and trigger the uptake of a guest molecule.

    • Alexandros P. Katsoulidis
    • , Dmytro Antypov
    • , George F. S. Whitehead
    • , Elliot J. Carrington
    • , Dave J. Adams
    • , Neil G. Berry
    • , George R. Darling
    • , Matthew S. Dyer
    •  & Matthew J. Rosseinsky
  • Letter |

    Analyses of over 700,000 satellite images to map the global extent of tidal flats over the past thirty years, and enable assessments of the status and likely future trajectories of these coastal ecosystems.

    • Nicholas J. Murray
    • , Stuart R. Phinn
    • , Michael DeWitt
    • , Renata Ferrari
    • , Renee Johnston
    • , Mitchell B. Lyons
    • , Nicholas Clinton
    • , David Thau
    •  & Richard A. Fuller
  • Letter |

    Climate-driven periodicity of flowstone accretion between 3.2 and 1.3 million years ago in Cradle of Humankind caves reveals that the presence of hominin fossils reflects accumulation in open caves during intermittent, substantially drier phases.

    • Robyn Pickering
    • , Andy I. R. Herries
    • , Jon D. Woodhead
    • , John C. Hellstrom
    • , Helen E. Green
    • , Bence Paul
    • , Terrence Ritzman
    • , David S. Strait
    • , Benjamin J. Schoville
    •  & Phillip J. Hancox
  • Letter |

    Isolates of the Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa from Yemen are from a single sublineage of the seventh pandemic El Tor (7PET) lineage and are susceptible to several commonly used antibiotics as well as to polymyxins.

    • François-Xavier Weill
    • , Daryl Domman
    • , Elisabeth Njamkepo
    • , Abdullrahman A. Almesbahi
    • , Mona Naji
    • , Samar Saeed Nasher
    • , Ankur Rakesh
    • , Abdullah M. Assiri
    • , Naresh Chand Sharma
    • , Samuel Kariuki
    • , Mohammad Reza Pourshafie
    • , Jean Rauzier
    • , Abdinasir Abubakar
    • , Jane Y. Carter
    • , Joseph F. Wamala
    • , Caroline Seguin
    • , Christiane Bouchier
    • , Thérèse Malliavin
    • , Bita Bakhshi
    • , Hayder H. N. Abulmaali
    • , Dhirendra Kumar
    • , Samuel M. Njoroge
    • , Mamunur Rahman Malik
    • , John Kiiru
    • , Francisco J. Luquero
    • , Andrew S. Azman
    • , Thandavarayan Ramamurthy
    • , Nicholas R. Thomson
    •  & Marie-Laure Quilici
  • Letter |

    Neoantigen-targeting vaccines are a feasible therapy for tumours with a low mutation burden and immunologically ‘cold’ tumour microenvironment, as neoantigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood migrate into intracranial glioblastoma, thereby altering the immune milieu of the glioblastoma.

    • Derin B. Keskin
    • , Annabelle J. Anandappa
    • , Jing Sun
    • , Itay Tirosh
    • , Nathan D. Mathewson
    • , Shuqiang Li
    • , Giacomo Oliveira
    • , Anita Giobbie-Hurder
    • , Kristen Felt
    • , Evisa Gjini
    • , Sachet A. Shukla
    • , Zhuting Hu
    • , Letitia Li
    • , Phuong M. Le
    • , Rosa L. Allesøe
    • , Alyssa R. Richman
    • , Monika S. Kowalczyk
    • , Sara Abdelrahman
    • , Jack E. Geduldig
    • , Sarah Charbonneau
    • , Kristine Pelton
    • , J. Bryan Iorgulescu
    • , Liudmila Elagina
    • , Wandi Zhang
    • , Oriol Olive
    • , Christine McCluskey
    • , Lars R. Olsen
    • , Jonathan Stevens
    • , William J. Lane
    • , Andres M. Salazar
    • , Heather Daley
    • , Patrick Y. Wen
    • , E. Antonio Chiocca
    • , Maegan Harden
    • , Niall J. Lennon
    • , Stacey Gabriel
    • , Gad Getz
    • , Eric S. Lander
    • , Aviv Regev
    • , Jerome Ritz
    • , Donna Neuberg
    • , Scott J. Rodig
    • , Keith L. Ligon
    • , Mario L. Suvà
    • , Kai W. Wucherpfennig
    • , Nir Hacohen
    • , Edward F. Fritsch
    • , Kenneth J. Livak
    • , Patrick A. Ott
    • , Catherine J. Wu
    •  & David A. Reardon
  • Letter |

    In a phase I trial, highly individualized peptide vaccines against unmutated tumour antigens and neoepitopes elicited sustained responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    • Norbert Hilf
    • , Sabrina Kuttruff-Coqui
    • , Katrin Frenzel
    • , Valesca Bukur
    • , Stefan Stevanović
    • , Cécile Gouttefangeas
    • , Michael Platten
    • , Ghazaleh Tabatabai
    • , Valerie Dutoit
    • , Sjoerd H. van der Burg
    • , Per thor Straten
    • , Francisco Martínez-Ricarte
    • , Berta Ponsati
    • , Hideho Okada
    • , Ulrik Lassen
    • , Arie Admon
    • , Christian H. Ottensmeier
    • , Alexander Ulges
    • , Sebastian Kreiter
    • , Andreas von Deimling
    • , Marco Skardelly
    • , Denis Migliorini
    • , Judith R. Kroep
    • , Manja Idorn
    • , Jordi Rodon
    • , Jordi Piró
    • , Hans S. Poulsen
    • , Bracha Shraibman
    • , Katy McCann
    • , Regina Mendrzyk
    • , Martin Löwer
    • , Monika Stieglbauer
    • , Cedrik M. Britten
    • , David Capper
    • , Marij J. P. Welters
    • , Juan Sahuquillo
    • , Katharina Kiesel
    • , Evelyna Derhovanessian
    • , Elisa Rusch
    • , Lukas Bunse
    • , Colette Song
    • , Sandra Heesch
    • , Claudia Wagner
    • , Alexandra Kemmer-Brück
    • , Jörg Ludwig
    • , John C. Castle
    • , Oliver Schoor
    • , Arbel D. Tadmor
    • , Edward Green
    • , Jens Fritsche
    • , Miriam Meyer
    • , Nina Pawlowski
    • , Sonja Dorner
    • , Franziska Hoffgaard
    • , Bernhard Rössler
    • , Dominik Maurer
    • , Toni Weinschenk
    • , Carsten Reinhardt
    • , Christoph Huber
    • , Hans-Georg Rammensee
    • , Harpreet Singh-Jasuja
    • , Ugur Sahin
    • , Pierre-Yves Dietrich
    •  & Wolfgang Wick
  • Letter |

    In a mouse model of ischaemic stroke, regulatory T cells infiltrate the injured brain in response to the chemokines CCL1 and CCL20 and suppress excessive astrogliosis via the production of amphiregulin.

    • Minako Ito
    • , Kyoko Komai
    • , Setsuko Mise-Omata
    • , Mana Iizuka-Koga
    • , Yoshiko Noguchi
    • , Taisuke Kondo
    • , Ryota Sakai
    • , Kazuhiko Matsuo
    • , Takashi Nakayama
    • , Osamu Yoshie
    • , Hiroko Nakatsukasa
    • , Shunsuke Chikuma
    • , Takashi Shichita
    •  & Akihiko Yoshimura
  • Letter |

    Allele-specific single-cell RNA sequencing provides insights into transcription kinetics, with data indicating that core promoter sequences affect burst size, whereas enhancers mainly affect burst frequency.

    • Anton J. M. Larsson
    • , Per Johnsson
    • , Michael Hagemann-Jensen
    • , Leonard Hartmanis
    • , Omid R. Faridani
    • , Björn Reinius
    • , Åsa Segerstolpe
    • , Chloe M. Rivera
    • , Bing Ren
    •  & Rickard Sandberg

Amendments & Corrections

  • Author Correction |

    • Hezhe Lu
    • , Shujing Liu
    • , Gao Zhang
    • , Bin Wu
    • , Yueyao Zhu
    • , Dennie T. Frederick
    • , Yi Hu
    • , Wenqun Zhong
    • , Sergio Randell
    • , Norah Sadek
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Gang Chen
    • , Chaoran Cheng
    • , Jingwen Zeng
    • , Lawrence W. Wu
    • , Jie Zhang
    • , Xiaoming Liu
    • , Wei Xu
    • , Clemens Krepler
    • , Katrin Sproesser
    • , Min Xiao
    • , Benchun Miao
    • , Jianglan Liu
    • , Claire D. Song
    • , Jephrey Y. Liu
    • , Giorgos C. Karakousis
    • , Lynn M. Schuchter
    • , Yiling Lu
    • , Gordon Mills
    • , Yusheng Cong
    • , Jonathan Chernoff
    • , Jun Guo
    • , Genevieve M. Boland
    • , Ryan J. Sullivan
    • , Zhi Wei
    • , Jeffrey Field
    • , Ravi K. Amaravadi
    • , Keith T. Flaherty
    • , Meenhard Herlyn
    • , Xiaowei Xu
    •  & Wei Guo
  • Addendum |

    • Jordi Barretina
    • , Giordano Caponigro
    • , Nicolas Stransky
    • , Kavitha Venkatesan
    • , Adam A. Margolin
    • , Sungjoon Kim
    • , Christopher J. Wilson
    • , Joseph Lehár
    • , Gregory V. Kryukov
    • , Dmitriy Sonkin
    • , Anupama Reddy
    • , Manway Liu
    • , Lauren Murray
    • , Michael F. Berger
    • , John E. Monahan
    • , Paula Morais
    • , Jodi Meltzer
    • , Adam Korejwa
    • , Judit Jané-Valbuena
    • , Felipa A. Mapa
    • , Joseph Thibault
    • , Eva Bric-Furlong
    • , Pichai Raman
    • , Aaron Shipway
    • , Ingo H. Engels
    • , Jill Cheng
    • , Guoying K. Yu
    • , Jianjun Yu
    • , Peter Aspesi Jr
    • , Melanie de Silva
    • , Kalpana Jagtap
    • , Michael D. Jones
    • , Li Wang
    • , Charles Hatton
    • , Emanuele Palescandolo
    • , Supriya Gupta
    • , Scott Mahan
    • , Carrie Sougnez
    • , Robert C. Onofrio
    • , Ted Liefeld
    • , Laura MacConaill
    • , Wendy Winckler
    • , Michael Reich
    • , Nanxin Li
    • , Jill P. Mesirov
    • , Stacey B. Gabriel
    • , Gad Getz
    • , Kristin Ardlie
    • , Vivien Chan
    • , Vic E. Myer
    • , Barbara L. Weber
    • , Jeff Porter
    • , Markus Warmuth
    • , Peter Finan
    • , Jennifer L. Harris
    • , Matthew Meyerson
    • , Todd R. Golub
    • , Michael P. Morrissey
    • , William R. Sellers
    • , Robert Schlegel
    •  & Levi A. Garraway
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